Holmium has no known essential biological function. Some species of Aspergillus and Penicillium form crystals of holmium oxalate when grown on solid media containing holmium (Talburt and Johnson, 1967). Aspergillus niger biomass binds Ho3+ in solution (Talburt and Johnson, 1972).

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Talburt DE, Johnson GT. Some effects of rare earth elements and yttrium on microbial growth. Mycologia 1967;59:492-503.


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