Erbium is used in metallurgy and in the production of colored glass and porcelain. No essential biological role for erbium is known. In the absence of Ca2+, Er3+ restored 78% of Bacillus subtilis α-amylase activity (Smolka et al, 1971). Er3+ was found to bind both Gram-positive and Gram-negative cell surfaces (Zborowski et al, 1992).

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