Chlorine occurs most frequently in microorganisms as chloride anions (Cl-). Increasingly, biogenic
are being discovered (reviewed by Gribble, 2003), and the microbial catabolism of synthetic
organochlorine compounds is continually being documented (reviewed by Van Pee et al, 2003).
There was a large increase in the industrial synthesis and
application of new organochlorine compounds in the 1930's,
1940's, 1950's and 1960's. Soil bacteria have adapted to the
environmental presence of PCBs,
In the case of the chlorinated herbicide atrazine,
there is substantial evidence that enzymes have recently evolved
to give soil bacteria new pathway(s) to catabolize the herbicide (Seffernick and
Wackett, 2001). Some methylotrophic bacteria can use methyl chloride as a sole carbon and energy source
(reviewed by McDonald et al, 2002), and some bacteria can use chlorate or perchlorate ions as terminal electron
acceptors during anaerobic growth (Kengen et al, 1999).
For more information:
Medline for chlorine metabolism AND bacteria
Adamson DT, Parkin GF. Product distribution during transformation
of multiple contaminants by a high-rate, tetrachlorethene-dechlorinating
enrichment culture. Biodegradation. 2001;12(5):337-48.
Jaspers CJ, Ewbank G, McCarthy AJ, Penninckx MJ. Successive
rapid reductive dehalogenation and mineralization of pentachlorophenol
by the indigenous microflora of farmyard manure compost.
J Appl Microbiol. 2002;92(1):127-33.
McDonald IR, Warner KL, McAnulla C, Woodall CA, Oremland RS, Murrell JC. A review of bacterial methyl halide degradation:
biochemistry, genetics, and molecular ecology. Environ. Microbiol. 2002;4:193-203.